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Demystifying EPDs in Sustainable Design

April 12, 2022

Earn CEU Credits:

i+s’ Continuing Education Series articles allow design practitioners to earn continuing education unit credits through an article.

Use the following learning objectives to focus your study while reading this article. To receive one hour of continuing education credit (0.1 CEU) as approved by IDCEC or 1 Learning Unit as approved by AIA, read the article, then log on to take the associated exam

After reading this article, you should be able to:

  • Understand the components of a Type III EPD.

  • Understand how to read data provided in a Type III EPD.

  • Understand the application of EPDs to specific rating system criteria for LEED and Green Globes.

  • Understand utilization of databases and resources to access Type III EPDs.

*This CEU opportunity is sponsored by RFCI.

 


 

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Now, more than ever, environmental impacts are a worldwide concern, and one that the A&D community is being asked to address in their work. EPDs can be a powerful tool to use when choosing materials for commercial projects--and understanding the ins & outs of this valuable tool has never been more necessary. From the creation of EPDs to using them when specifying materials, there’s a lot to understand, yet it’s a tough subject to tackle on your own. 

Attendees will be provided a clear understanding of EPDs starting with the basic vocabulary and will then learn what to look for in a completed report. Once you have a basic understanding of the fundamentals, you’ll learn how to put them to use in projects seeking green building certification. The wrap up includes providing direction on how to find EPDs to be used for compliance to certifications and impact data for building projects. 

What are EPDs?

Per Senior Consultant and life cycle expert, John Jewell, “EPDs are communication tools that bring complex life cycle assessments (LCAs) into a more user-friendly format by streamlining the information presented and enforcing as much consistency as possible.” 

Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a technique for assessing environmental impacts associated with a product over its anticipated service life. The impacts typically include, but are not limited to, global warming potential (GWP), ozone depletion potential (ODP), acidification potential (AP), eutrophication potential (EP), smog formation potential (SFP), and abiotic depletion potential (fossil fuels) . GWP is associated with a product’s embodied carbon, which is the most well-known because of the impact to climate change. For resilient flooring products, there are two methods typically utilized to estimate the measure of environmental impacts of a product—one is called TRACI 2.0 (Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts 2.0) and the other is CML 2001 developed by the Institute of Environmental Sciences, Leiden University.  

To complete a life cycle assessment, it is necessary to have a Product Category Rule (PCR) that provides consistency in the evaluation of the impacts included in the assessment. The PCR creates parameters that are developed with stakeholders within a product category – such as resilient floor covering – essentially providing a measuring stick by which all products in that category are to be evaluated. For products to consistently be assessed, they must use the same functional unit (declared unit). For resilient flooring this is square meters (m2). 

The term stakeholders in this context include material suppliers, manufacturers, trade associations, purchasers, product users, consumers, nongovernmental organizations, public agencies, life cycle assessment practitioners and certification bodies who participate in the consensus process for developing the Product Category Rule (PCR). 

NOX Global: Luxury Vinyl Tile (LVT)
NOX Global: Luxury Vinyl Tile (LVT)

ISO is the International Organization of Standardization that develops consensus based standards. Specifically, ISO 14040 and ISO 14044 provide the principles, framework, requirements and guidelines to conduct a life cycle assessment (LCA). The standards identify opportunities to improve the environmental performance of products at various points in the life cycle. 

ISO 14025 establishes the principles and specifies the procedures for developing Type II environmental declaration programs and Type III environmental declarations. ISO 21930 provides the principles, specifications, and requirements to develop an environmental product declaration (EPD) for construction products. ISO 21930 complements ISO 14025 by providing specific requirements for the EPD and establishes the core set of requirements to be considered as product category rules (PCR) to develop an EPD for any construction product. 

Type III EPDs are third party verified by a program operator to ensure the EPD accurately reflects the life cycle assessment and follows the PCR requirements. Once the EPD is verified it is registered by the program operator and made publicly available. 

There are various life cycle stages that are part of life cycle assessments that are used for evaluating products. Minimally, according to ISO Standards, a Type III EPD is required to include A1 – A3 stages – cradle to gate in the life cycle assessment. 

Diagram 1: A1 - A3 Cradle to Gate
Diagram 1: A1 - A3 Cradle to Gate
 

Cradle to grave begins with the same information as the cradle to gate assessment and proceeds through Stage A4 and A5, transportation from gate to site and assembly/install during construction, respectively. B1 through B7 is the use stage of a product and C1 – C4 is the end of life stage. There is a Stage D that includes reuse, recovery, recycling potential as the benefits and loads beyond the system boundary of cradle to grave. 

Diagram 2: A1 - A5 Cradle to Grave
Diagram 2: A1 - A5 Cradle to Grave
 
Diagram 3: Cradle to Cradle Life Cycle Stages
Diagram 3: Cradle to Cradle Life Cycle Stages

As indicated by the term “circularity”, cradle to cradle life cycles assessment looks at the end of life stage as an opportunity to recycle or reuse a product as a feedstock in the same product. For the example of resilient flooring, at end of life, the product would be recycled back into a feedstock for resilient flooring. 

There are opportunities to upcycle and downcycle various feedstocks that are created from recycled material. For example, a disposable bottle could be upcycled and used as a feedstock for a durable product, such as backing for flooring. In contrast, a recycled flooring product could be downcycled and used as a feedstock for traffic cones. Full circularity from flooring back into flooring, upcycling, or downcycling are all valuable in achieving landfill avoidance. 

There are two different types of Type III Environmental Product Declarations—Industry Wide and Product Specific. Data from multiple manufacturers of the same product type, such as vinyl tile or rubber sheet, are provided for the completion of a life cycle assessment using aggregated averaged data. Product Specific EPDs are developed for an individual product from a specific manufacturer within a specific category, such as Brand X of Luxury Vinyl Tile (LVT) or Brand X of Heterogeneous Sheet Vinyl. Once the LCA is completed using a recognized PCR and methodology, a Program Operator third party verifies and publishes the Type III EPD. This applies to both Industry Wide and Product Specific EPDs. 

Diagram 4: Putting it All Together! Publishing a Type III EPD. Created by JSR Associates, Inc.
Diagram 4: Putting it All Together! Publishing a Type III EPD. Created by JSR Associates, Inc.
 

How do you read the Type III EPD data?

Published EPDs do not always look the same, because the assessments are carried out by different independent third-party companies, assessors, and verifiers.  However, all EPDs have to include the same information, but it may be in varying formats based on the product type and the program operator. 

Photograph 1: EPD examples for Product Specific EDPs for Rubber Flooring and Homogeneous Sheet Flooring, respectively.
Photograph 1: EPD examples for Product Specific EDPs for Rubber Flooring and Homogeneous Sheet Flooring, respectively.

        
EPDs include basic information that can assist with meeting the compliance to various material credits within green building certification systems. This is an example of the information available on the EPD: manufacturer that is producing the EPD, the product type – in this example being luxury vinyl tile, and the identified program operator. 

Photograph 2: Publicly available Product Specific EPD: available on www.BuildingTransparency.org and search under resilient flooring category and LVT as product type.
Photograph 2: Publicly available Product Specific EPD: available on www.BuildingTransparency.org and search under resilient flooring category and LVT as product type.

 
The next page within an EPD provides additional information that is relevant to product selection and compliance with building certification material credits, including the date of issue and number of years the EPD is valid, the type of EPD—Industry-Wide or Product Specific, and compliance with ISO standard that requires third party verification of the EPD.  

Photograph 3: Publicly available Product Specific EPD: available on www.BuildingTransparency.org and search under resilient flooring category and LVT as product type.
Photograph 3: Publicly available Product Specific EPD: available on www.BuildingTransparency.org and search under resilient flooring category and LVT as product type.
 

Technical data on the product is also provided in the EPD. These are the performance characteristics that are used when specifying a product for the appropriate application. These details will vary by product and category—this is an EPD for Heterogeneous Sheet Flooring, which provides additional data for evaluation that includes product thickness, the wear layer thickness, the product weight, and the product form—in this case, the sheet vinyl is in rolls versus cut into tiles or planks.  

Photograph 4: Publicly available Product Specific EPD: available on www.BuildingTransparency.org and search under resilient flooring category and Sheet Vinyl as product type.sys
Photograph 4: Publicly available Product Specific EPD: available on www.BuildingTransparency.org and search under resilient flooring category and Sheet Vinyl as product type.sys
 

The LCA Information is also included within the EPD. This example is an Industry Average EPD for rubber sheet and tile flooring. There were seven (7) manufacturers who participated in the life cycle assessment and EPD process. 

Photograph 5: Example of Industry Wide EPD for Rubber Flooring. Resilient flooring Industry Wide EPDs are available on the Resilient Floor Covering Institute (RFCI) website.
Photograph 5: Example of Industry-Wide EPD for Rubber Flooring. Resilient flooring Industry-Wide EPDs are available on the Resilient Floor Covering Institute (RFCI) website.
 

The System Boundaries are the stages (or modules) that are included within the life cycle assessment. This example shows that the EPD Type is cradle to grave – including the Product Stage through completion of manufacturing (the gate), the Construction Process Stage which includes transportation to site and installed on a project. The Use Stage includes maintenance, repair, replacement, and building operational water use during the product use. The End of Life Stage includes deconstruction, transport, waste processing, and disposal. This ties into Stage “D” – Benefits and Loads Beyond the System Boundary – taking into consideration reuse, recovery, and recycling potential – that are all means for landfill avoidance. 

Diagram 5: Example of Industry Wide EPD for Rubber Flooring of the various life cycle assessment stages included in a Cradle to Grave EPD.
Diagram 5: Example of Industry Wide EPD for Rubber Flooring of the various life cycle assessment stages included in a Cradle to Grave EPD.
 

Based on the life cycle stages (modules), these are the cradle to grave results for a functional unit (declared unit) of 1m2 over the 75-year building estimated service life. Note the building service life will typically differ from the reference service life of a resilient flooring  product. Stages not shown are considered zero for assessment.

To calculate cradle to grave impact over shorter period of time than the 75 years, the following formula can be used to better understand the impacts. 

((Sum the modules by impact ÷ 75 years) × life expectancy of flooring in specific project) = recalculated impact.

Diagram 6: Example of Industry Wide EPD for Rubber Flooring and the resulting LCA impact results.
Diagram 6: Example of Industry Wide EPD for Rubber Flooring and the resulting LCA impact results.
 

Based on a Product Specific EPD for LVT Flooring, the diagram graphically shows LCA results by stage of module. 

It is important in evaluating each of these impacts, that this is information that informs the product selection, but is not the only attribute that needs to be considered. For example, global warming potential is important in evaluating embodied carbon—but in addition it is as equally important to understand the desired product life for the applicable project, the minimum performance requirements of a product based on the type of application, the health impacts, the cleaning and disinfection requirements from an owner or operator, the timeframe of usage—24/7 versus 8 hours per day, and of course the aesthetics of the product in relationship to the overall interior design experience that is desired. These are all essential to support sustainability initiatives including reduction of potential premature product failure. 

Figure 2: Contribution analysis for the Karndean Designflooring LVT flooring products (excluding product replacements) over the product's reference service life (RSL) - CML-IA. Product distribution to North America.
Figure 2: Contribution analysis for the Karndean Designflooring LVT flooring products (excluding product replacements) over the product's reference service life (RSL)—CML-IA. Product distribution to North America.
 

How are EPDs applicable to Green Building Rating Systems and Codes? 

Photograph 6: Tarkett: Luxury Vinyl Tile: Education Installation
Photograph 6: Tarkett: Luxury Vinyl Tile: Education Installation

EPDs are part of criteria needed to meet specific rating system credits for LEED® and Green Globes® and the International Green Construction Code (IgCC), which specifically includes content and requirements established in the ASHRAE 189.1 high performance building standard. This ANSI standard’s sponsors include the AIA, ASHRAE, USGBC, and IES. 

There is also a published healthcare high performance ANSI standard developed by ASHRAE and ASHE called ASHRAE 189.3, which is being evaluated to be included within and/or directly referenced by ASHRAE 189.1 for inclusion in the IgCC for healthcare project types. 
In an effort to encourage the use of products and materials for which life-cycle information is available, LEED® v4.1 rewards project teams for selecting products with verified EPDs. 

LEED v4.1 B+D New Construction includes strategies for projects to earn points within the Materials and Resources section by specifying products that have Type III EPDs.  

Option 1: Environmental Product Declaration
Use at least 20 different permanently installed products sourced from at least five different manufacturers that meet one of the criteria.

LCA and EPDs

  • LCA (ISO 14044) – cradle to gate scope (count as 1 product)
  • Product Specific EPD – internally reviewed (count as 1 product)
  • Industry Wide Type III EPD / minimum cradle to gate scope (count as 1 product)
  • Product Specific Type III EPD / minimum cradle to gate scope (count as 1.5 product)

With the advancement of EPDs, the LCA path for product compliance, would typically be incorporated within the EPD process, as it follows the same life cycle assessment standards and requirements. A product specific EPD could be internally reviewed; however even if the LCA is completed inhouse, a manufacturer typically will complete the third party verification to complete a Product Specific Type III EPD. 

The Industry Wide Type III EPD would be completed through a trade association or other affiliated organization that includes multiple member manufacturers that produce the same product category, such as the Resilient Floor Covering Institute (RFCI) producing Industry Wide Type III EPDs for rubber sheet and tile, vinyl composition tile, luxury vinyl tile/solid vinyl tile, heterogeneous sheet vinyl, homogeneous sheet vinyl, and rigid core vinyl flooring.  In addition, the EPD scope has to be minimally Cradle to Gate. In the following Industry Wide EPD, also known as Industry Average EPD example the scope is Cradle to Grave, which is in compliance for one point under the LEED® credit for Option 1. 

Photograph 7: Industry Wide (also called Industry Average) EPD that is third party verified and minimally Cradle to Gate scope.
Photograph 7: Industry Wide (also called Industry Average) EPD that is third party verified and minimally Cradle to Gate scope.
 

Product Specific Type III EPD follow the same process as the Industry Wide Type III EPD but being Type III they are verified by a third party and completed for one specific category as well as a specific product. Here is an example of a Product Specific Type III EPD (externally verified), which would qualify for one and a half points under the LEED® credit.

Photograph 8: Product Specific Type III EPD with a minimal scope of Cradle to Gate and externally verified by a third party.
Photograph 8: Product Specific Type III EPD with a minimal scope of Cradle to Gate and externally verified by a third party.
 

Option 2: Embodied Carbon / LCA Optimization includes the specification of products that have a compliant embodied carbon optimization report of action plan separate from the LCA or EPD and the project uses a minimum of 5 permanently installed products sourced from at least three different manufacturers. To comply, designers must show either a plan to improve life-cycle impacts (one-half product) or actual improvements in life-cycle impacts (one to two products) from the product manufacturer. There are various pathways for earning the one point available under Option 2.

It comes down to this: products with a signed action plan for reducing life-cycle impacts count for half a point, and products showing reductions in embodied carbon of a product count as one, one and a half, or two products based on the type of EPD (or LCA) used for the baseline. 

The compliance to this credit is more complex and includes the following options:

  1. Manufacturer prepared Action Plan for reducing embodied carbon using LCA or Product Specific Type III EPD and company executive signs off on the Action Plan.
    1. a.    Because this is worth half a product, would need 10 products to comply with this criterion.
  2. Using Product Specific LCA, Type III EPD, or Industry Wide Type III EPD as the baseline, demonstrate that an improvement over time has been completed.
    1. For example, if you have an Industry Wide Type III EPD that shows a global warming potential of 5.8 for a heterogeneous sheet vinyl product – and the same PCR, functional unit (declared unit), and LCA method was used to develop a Product Specific Type III EPD (or LCA) and that EPD shows a 5.22 or lower global warming potential, this would be in compliance with the requirement and garner 1 out of the 5 products required.
    2. Example two, if a Product Specific Type III EPD (or LCA) was completed and a new updated Product Specific Type III EPD that used the same PCR, functional unit (declared unit), and LCA method was used for the updated EPD, and it demonstrated a difference of 10% improvement – 4.8 for LVT to 4.32 or lower in the updated EPD, this would be in compliance and garner 1.5 out of the 5 products required.
      1. To garner 2 product points, it would require the previous step PLUS evaluating two of the other impact categories - ozone depletion potential (ODP), acidification potential (AP), eutrophication potential (EP), smog formation potential (SFP), and abiotic depletion potential (fossil fuel) – to verify a minimum of a 5% reduction. 
    3. One way to assist with this complex evaluation is to use Building Transparency’s Embodied Carbon Construction Calculator—as you can look up both Industry Wide and Product Specific EPDs on the database, and in addition to noting the GWP, the other impact categories are usually included as well from the digitized information. 
Photograph 9: © Benjamin Benschneider Photography | Walton Lofts in Seattle achieved Three Green Globes for New Construction.
Photograph 9: © Benjamin Benschneider Photography | Walton Lofts in Seattle achieved Three Green Globes for New Construction.

Green Globes® – New Construction (NC) supports sustainable, healthy, and resilient buildings for all and is a comprehensive, science-based building rating system that supports a wide range of new construction and existing building project types.  Green Globes – NC includes strategies for projects to earn points within the Materials section and Product Life Cycle subsection by specifying products that have Type III EPDs—either product-specific or industry-wide (industry average) with a cradle to gate product life cycle and additional points for Type III EPDs with a cradle to grave product life cycle.

Product Life Cycle

  • 5.2.1.1 (ANSI 10.2.1.1) How many products include third-party verifications / certifications that evaluate the cradle to gate product life cycle? 
    • Product manufacturers provide one or more of the following for a minimum of 15 products that evaluate the cradle to gate life cycle.
    • EPDs, Multiple Attribute Certifications, and LCA   
      • Third-party verified Type III EPD – product specific or industry average (industry wide). 
      • Third-party Multiple Attribute Certifications ; AND/OR
      • Third party verified product LCA (ISO 14040 and 14044)
    • 5 to 40+ products (5 to 29 points)
  • 5.2.1.2 (ANSI 10.2.1.2) How many products include one or more of the following verifications that evaluate the products through end of life (cradle to grave product life cycle)?  
    • Product manufacturers provide one or more of the following for a minimum of 5 products that evaluate the cradle to grave life cycle.
    • EPDs and LCA 
      • Third party verified Type III EPDs (ISO 14025 and 21930) – product specific or industry average (industry wide); AND/OR
      • Third party verified product LCA (ISO 14040 and 14044)
    • 5 to 10+ products (5 to 10 points)

International Green Construction Code® (IgCC) is a green overlay code used in conjunction with other ICC model codes. Documentation for compliance is submitted to the Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ). The IgCC includes content and requirements established in the ASHRAE 189.1 high performance building standard. This ANSI standard’s sponsors include the AIA, ASHRAE, USGBC, and IES. There is also a published healthcare high performance ANSI standard developed by ASHRAE and ASHE called ASHRAE 189.3, which is being evaluated to be included within and/or directly referenced by ASHRAE 189.1 for inclusion in updates to the IgCC for healthcare project types.

The IgCC / ASHRAE 189.1 requires a minimum of 10 products to be installed that include industry wide EPD (counts as 1 product), product specific EPD (counts as 2 products), and/or third party verified product LCA (counts as 2 products). In addition to LCA and EPDs, the criteria can be met by having products that are certified and third party verified to multi-attribute standards (ANSI consensus-based standards) that include environmental, health and wellness, and social impact criteria, such as NSF/ANSI 332 Sustainability Assessment for Resilient Flooring). 

Materials & Resources

  • 9.4.1.4 Multiple Attribute Product Declaration or Certification. 
    Minimum of 10 products installed in the building project at time of issuance of certificate of occupancy.
    • 9.4.1.4.1 Industry Wide Declaration – Industry Wide Type III EPD - minimum “cradle to gate” scope – counts as 1 product.
    • 9.4.1.4.2 Product Specific Declaration – Product Specific Type III EPD – minimum “cradle to gate” scope – counts as 2 products. 
    • 9.4.1.4.3 Third-Party Multiattribute Certification – minimum performance level – counts as 2 products.
    • 9.4.1.4.4 Third party verified LCA (ISO 14040 and 14044) – minimum “cradle to gate” scope – counts as 2 products.

This is a summary of the various requirements by Building Rating System and the IgCC. There are a variety of approaches within the rating systems. The ASHRAE 189.1 committee is currently reviewing adding additional requirements for number of EPDs as well as evaluated embodied carbon / global warming potential as a specific LCA impact. Similarly Green Globes—Existing Building (EB) has credits in the Cycle Renovation section and policies and procedures to include EPDs, as well as means for continual improvement by using Industry Wide and previous EPDs as a resource for continual improvement—if using the same PCR, functional unit (declared unit), and LCA methodology. 

Figure 3: Summary of Building Rating System or Code, Number of Products Required, Number of Points Available, and applicability of Industry Wide EPD and Product Specific EPD.
Figure 3: Summary of Building Rating System or Code, Number of Products Required, Number of Points Available, and applicability of Industry Wide EPD and Product Specific EPD.
 

Where do you find EPDs and related sustainability information?

Environmental Product Declarations (EPDs) are available from the various Program Operators, such as SCS Global, UL Environment, ASTM International, Green Circle Certified, and NSF. Resilient flooring Industry Wide Environmental Product Declarations are available on the Resilient Floor Covering Institute (RFCI) website. Product specific EPDs are available from manufacturer website, material databases, and Building Transparency’s Embodied Carbon Construction Calculator (EC3) database. EC3 also includes Industry Wide EPDs and the listing of participating manufacturers. Material databases include Mindful Materials®, Sustainable Minds® Transparency Catalogue, and ecomedes®, which has a dedicated RFCI product database for all sustainability information on the resilient flooring category, including Environmental Product Declarations.

Products are linked to EC3 from the various databases to provide direct access to not only EPDs but also embodied carbon information. The resilient flooring industry partnered with ecomedes® to create an all-in-one accessible location for designers, architects, specifiers, flooring subcontractors, and facility managers to easily find environmental, health, and social impact information directly associated with product selection and related information required for compliance to building rating systems.  

Final Thoughts

EPDs are one source of information used to inform decision-making when specifying products, such as resilient floor covering. It is critically important to use a multiple attribute approach to product selection—meeting all of the owner project requirements (OPR). Specifiers have to balance all of the various attributes and product characteristics necessary to meet the project needs—selecting the appropriate product for the specific application. The goal is to select the best product that maximizes the product service life—creating truly sustainable and healthy environments for building users.

Photograph 11: Nora by Interface: products meeting the OPR in an educational setting.
Photograph 11: Nora by Interface: products meeting the OPR in an educational setting.
 

For more information on resilient flooring products, please go to the Resilient Floor Covering Institute (RFCI) website. For product specific questions, please reach out to the product manufacturer. Any additional questions can be direct to Jane Rohde, AIA, FIIDA, ASID, ACHA, CHID, LEED AP BD+C, GGA-EB, GGF at JSR Associates, Inc. at jane@jsrassociates.net
 

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About RFCI
The Resilient Floor Covering Institute is the flooring industry’s association that provides support for a network of global resilient flooring manufacturers. The mission of RFCI is to enhance the long-term growth and well-being of the North American resilient floor covering industry. RFCI strategic goals include managing issues that affect manufacturing, products, and the people who use them, and which typically emanate from federal and state government agencies as well as non-governmental agencies and activist groups. Other goals include promoting the resilient flooring category, developing guidelines and certification programs, and sustainability of resilient flooring products, their installation, and maintenance.

Sources

  1. Abiotic depletion refers to the depletion of nonliving (abiotic) resources such as fossil fuels, minerals, clay, and peat. Abiotic depletion is measured in kilograms of Antimony (Sb) equivalents.
     
  2. The Green Building Initiative includes Green Globes – NC, Green Globes – Existing Building (EB), and Green Globes – Sustainable Interiors (SI) and a software platform that asks a series of questions based on ANSI standard criteria for a project, which is assigned an assessor. GBI also has a Core and Shell and Multi-family Green Globes Certifications for New and Existing Buildings. The Federal Guiding Principles are used as a benchmark for sustainability compliance for government projects. The development of the Guiding Principles Compliance Verification was completed for governmental agencies seeking compliance to the Federal Guiding Principles.
     
  3. Products certified with NSF/ANSI 332 Sustainability Assessment for Resilient Flooring count as one product. Other Multiple Attribute Standards are available for carpet, wallcovering, fabric, single ply roofing, stone, furniture, tile, gypsum board, and doors.
     
  4. CML 2001 Method – Impact Assessment Method – developed by the Institute of Environmental Sciences, Leiden University
     
  5. ecomedes®: material database
     
  6. Green Globes® New Construction 2021 Technical Manual: Implementation of ANSI/GBI 01-2021L Green Globes Assessment Protocol for Design, New Constructions, and Major Renovations: Materials Product Life Cycle
     
  7. ISO Standards: www.iso.org
     
  8. ISO 14040: Environmental management — Life cycle assessment — Principles and framework
     
  9. ISO 14044: Environmental management — Life cycle assessment — Requirements and guidelines
     
  10. ISO 14025: Environmental labels and declarations — Type III environmental declarations — Principles and procedures
     
  11. ISO 21930: Sustainability in buildings and civil engineering works — Core rules for environmental product declarations of construction products and services
     
  12. LEED® Credit Library: Materials and Resources
     
  13. Mindful Materials®: material database
     
  14. Resilient Floor Covering Institute (RFCI) – Industry Wide Type III EPDs
     
  15. Sustainability Facilities Tool: Environmental Product Declarations
     
  16. Sustainable Minds® Transparency Catalogue: material database
     
  17. TRACI 2.0 – The Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts

 

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About the author
Jane Rohde | AIA, FIIDA, ASID, ACHA, CHID, LEED AP BD+C, GGA-EB

Jane Rohde, AIA, FIIDA, ASID, ACHA, CHID LEED AP BD+C & GGA – EB: Jane Rohde is the founding principal of JSR Associates Inc. in Catonsville, MD. JSR Associates Inc. celebrates 23 years of consulting services in 2019. Jane is the recipient of the 2015 Environments for Aging Changemaker Award and in 2018 she received the ASID Design for Humanity Award, was recognized as an Honorary Alumni of Clemson University’s Architecture + Health program, and has been honored as one of 10 notable Women in Design. For more information or comments, please contact Jane Rohde at jane@jsrassociates.net or “Chat with Jane” at www.jsrassociates.net.